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Full text of "Authority and the individual"

elected  by  those   over  whom   they  are   to   have
authority.                                                           *
The impersonal fand remote character of those in
authority over an industrial undertaking is fatal to
any proprietarial interest on the part of the ordinary
employee. Mr, Burnham's "Managerial Revolution"
presents a far from cheerful picture of the possi-
bilities in the near future. If we wish to avoid the
drab world that he prophesies, the thing of first
importance is to democratize management. This
subject is dealt with admirably in Mr. James Gilles-
pie's Free Expression in Industry, and I cannot do better
than quote from him. He says:
£ 'There is a sense of frustration when an individual
or a group has a serious problem and cannot get
to the top with it. As in civil bureaucracy, so is it
in industrial bureaucracy—there are the same
delays, the reference to X or Y, the statement of
the rules and the same feeling of helplessness and
frustration. clf I could only get to the chief, he
would know, he would see. . . .' This desire to get
to the top is very real ajiid very important. The
monthly meeting of representatives of employee
groups is not without value, but it is not an
effective substitute for a face-to-face relationship
between owner and employee. It does not help
this situation when a shop steward, or an operator,
goes to the foreman with a problem and the fore-
man, shorn of authority, through transfer of